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Many car shoppers don’t realize just how much damage floodwaters do to a vehicle. That represents a problem—not just to the owner of a car or truck that falls victim to a catastrophic flood, but to prospective buyers unaware of the vehicle’s history.

The risk of flooded vehicles on the market affects everyone looking for a used car, and not just those in the immediate vicinity of a flood. After Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, for example, flooded cars popped up for sale across the country. It’s a smart bet that the same will happen once the waters Hurricane Harvey dumped on Houston recede, too.

The best way to protect yourself from unscrupulous—or even unknowing—dealers is to educate yourself on how to spot the tell-tale signs of flood damage.

Flooded car in parking lot. Photo via Flickr user waitscm/CC2.0Flooded car in parking lot. Photo via Flickr user waitscm/CC2.0

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Run the VIN

It sounds obvious that you should check the vehicle’s history to look for repairs, but it’s still an important step. Run the VIN through Carfax, which will tell you, for free, if a car has been in a flood. If you get a positive result, you can stop with your investigation, because you don’t want that car.

You can’t just stop there if the car you’re looking at isn’t marked by Carfax, however. While dealers are required to disclose flood damage, there exist enough loopholes in the system that some cars inevitably sneak through. For example, if a car was insured at the time the flood occurred, the damage would almost definitely be reported. However, it is easier to skip the requisite reporting if repairing the car without the insurance company’s oversight.

Check the electrical system

Check everything from electrical wiring to how well each system works. Don’t use corrosion on a battery terminal as an indicator, because that’s a relatively common phenomenon anyway. If you see corrosion forming on any of the other wiring on the car, however, take that as a bad sign.

Even if you don’t see physical proof of corrosion, you should attempt to use every single system on the car. Start with the basics, like the radio, the turn signals, and the windshield wipers. Condensation in the headlights isn’t a definite sign, but it’s one more point to remember as you look over the vehicle.

Keep in mind that many electrical problems caused by floods don’t manifest themselves immediately, or even consistently. A faulty brake light, for example, might only become apparent under specific circumstances.

If every single electrical item works, it’s a good sign, but not yet a conclusive piece of evidence.

Carefully inspect the body for rust

Some cars may have minor rust in a few locations anyway. That’s not a major warning sign in and of itself. Rather, look at the underside of the hood, inside the doors, and in the trunk. If you can, lift part of the interior carpet and look for rust on the floor, or on the bolts holding the seats down. Rust in any of these areas is a proverbial flashing red light.

And look for sand and dirt in places people don’t usually clean

Look inside the wheel wells. If you can see sand and dirt gathered at a constant level, almost like a dirt ring in a filthy bathtub, you have a good reason to believe the car was sitting in flood waters. Do the same with the exhaust underneath the car.

If you can, reach underneath the car and see if there’s sand on the suspension. Anywhere that water can pool is also worth investigating, such as the spare tire well in the trunk, or under the seats.

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